The Achilles tendon connects your calf muscles to your heel bone. Together, they help you push your heel off the ground and go up on your toes. You use these muscles and your Achilles tendon when you walk, run, and jump. If your Achilles tendon stretches too far, it can tear or rupture. If this happens, you may hear a snapping, cracking, or popping sound and feel a sharp pain in the back of your leg or ankle. Have trouble moving your foot to walk or go up stairs. Have difficulty standing on your toes. Have bruising or swelling in your leg or foot.
Causes of and contributors to Achilles tendon rupture include trauma (caused by injury, usually an acceleration injury such as pushing off or jumping up). Preceding tendon problems. Chronic Achilles tendonitis (can lead to small tears within the tendon, increasingly weakening it). Certain drug therapies/treatments. Drugs that have been linked to Achilles tendon rupture include. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics - after nearly 900 reports of tendon ruptures, tendonitis and other tendon disorders (most associated with the Achilles tendon) linked to Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) alone were collected in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)?s database, at least one public-interest group petitioned the FDA to recommend that a "Black Box Warning" be added to Cipro's packaging. Some researchers speculate this class of antibiotics is toxic to tendon fibers, and that in some cases may reduce their blood supply. Patients should at least be more aware of the potential for ruptures so that they can be switched to other antibiotics at the onset of early warning signals such as tendon pain.
Symptoms of an Achilles tendon injury are as follows. Pain along the back of your foot and above your heel, especially when stretching your ankle or standing on your toes; with tendinitis, pain may be mild and worsen gradually. If you rupture the tendon, pain can be abrupt and severe. Tenderness. Swelling. Stiffness. Hearing a snapping or popping noise during the injury. Difficulty flexing your foot or pointing your toes (in complete tears of the tendon).
A detailed history, and examination by an appropriately qualified health professional, will allow a diagnosis to be made. An ultrasound or MRI scan can confirm the diagnosis. Other causes of symptoms in the area, such as those referred from the lumbar spine and local infection, should be excluded.
Non Surgical Treatment
If you suspect a total rupture of the achilles tendon then apply cold therapy and compression and seek medical attention as soon as possible. In most cases surgery is required and the sooner this takes place the higher the chances of success. If the injury is left longer than two days then the chances of a successful outcome decrease. Cold and compression can also be applied throughout the rehabilitation phase as swelling is likely to be an issue with such a serious injury.
Your doctor may recommend surgery if you?re young and active, or an athlete. However, this will depend on where your tendon is ruptured. If the rupture is at, or above, the point at which your tendon merges with your calf muscle, for example, surgery may not be possible. There are three main types of surgery to repair a ruptured Achilles tendon. Open surgery. Your surgeon will make one long cut in your leg to reach the tendon and repair it. Limited open surgery. Your surgeon will still make a single cut but it will be shorter. Percutaneous surgery. Your surgeon will make a number of small cuts to reach the tendon and repair it. In all types of surgery, your surgeon will stitch the tendon together so it can heal. Each type of surgery has different risks. Open surgery is less likely to injure one of the nerves in your leg for example, but has a higher risk of infection. Ask your surgeon to explain the risks in more detail. After your operation, you will need to wear a series of casts or an adjustable brace on your leg to help your Achilles tendon heal. This will usually be for between four and eight weeks. There is a chance that your tendon will rupture again after the operation.
The following can significantly reduce the risk of Achilles tendon rupture. Adequate stretching and warming up prior to exercising. If playing a seasonal sport, undertake preparatory exercises to build strength and endurance before the sporting season commences. Maintain a healthy body weight. This will reduce the load on the tendon and muscles. Use footwear appropriate for the sport or exercise being undertaken. Exercise within fitness limits and follow a sensible exercise programme. Increase exercise gradually and avoid unfamiliar strenuous exercise. Gradual ?warm down? after exercising.